Information Retrieval Machine Learning Publications

Recommender Systems

Recommender Systems (RS) provide a user with recommendations about items as part of any given service. They are a subclass of Information Filtering. They have a variety of domains of application: movies, travel, financial services (insurance, loans), advertising… Using an RS presents several benefits: increased user loyalty and satisfaction, increased revenues and system efficiency…

Below, we present a general overview of RS, namely an introduction to the different types of RS and their core concept. In the last section, we will look at dimensionality reduction CF.

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Audio Analysis Machine Learning Publications Signal Processing Video Analysis

Random Forest Classifier and Bag of Audio Words concept applied to audio scene recognition

Bag of Audio Words (BoAW) is a concept inspired by the text mining research area. The idea is to represent any audio signal as a document of words. In this parallelism, each word corresponds to an acoustic feature.  The concept was successfully applied to image processing where the bag of visual words is generated using an unsupervised classifier like k-means. Here we will describe how to design a Bag of Words for the speech/audio signal case. Since the final goal is to build an audio/speech pattern recognition system, we will used as supervised classifier the Random Forest  (RF) classifier, which is well adapted to large data sets with a very high number of features. Moreover, it has some good robustness properties to guard against overfitting.

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Audio Analysis Information Retrieval Machine Learning Publications Signal Processing Speech Processing Video Analysis

Automatic Emotion Recognition system using Deep Belief Network

Mood is a subjective term describing the emotional state of a human being. It can be expressed in textual form (e.g. twitter …). Let us remember that this topic is already addressed in our paper about sentiment analyses. On the other hand, mood can be recognized by analyzing facial expressions or/and the nature of voice. The speech-based Automatic Emotion Recognition (AER) systems which will be discussed here have several types of application, such as emotion detection in call centers, where being able to detect the emotion can be helpful in taking appropriate decisions. In the case of online video advertising, forecasting the emotion from speech signals in video can be useful to fine-tune the user targeting. Obviously, emotion detected from speech can be combined with facial expressions and textual information to improve accuracy. Here we will focus on Automatic Emotion Recognition based uniquely on an analysis of human speech. The system that will be presented is based on a recent machine learning technique: Deep Learning Network (DBN). It is an improvement on classical neural networks. We will describe the DBN and the database of emotional speech used to build such an AER system.

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Auction Theory

The auction process is a set of trading rules in economic theory, relating to a very old procedure. As long ago as A.D. 193, the Praetorian Guard sold the Roman Empire by auction. Auctions can take place with the physical presence of buyers and sellers, or electronically. Nowadays, auctions are used in various fields: selling of companies, houses, cars, radio spectrum licenses, assets, etc. More recently, this process has been used in the field of online advertising through Real Time Bidding (RTB) systems. Here, we present some of the main principles of auctions while focusing on the particular case of Independent Private Value (IPV) auctions, which will be explained.

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Information Retrieval Machine Learning Publications Text Mining

Sentiment Analysis

The customers’ sentiments and opinions are key information in marketing. Feedback about the items customers have bought can be used to optimize production. On the other hand, in a political context, the population’s opinions about a given law are crucial for its establishment. In the field of advertising, knowledge about customers’ sentiments can be useful to refine the parameters of campaigns to achieve better targeting. We can imagine that being in possession of a tool which can measure this “sentiment” is an invaluable asset.

Sentiment analysis, as its name explicitly suggests, is a system that automatically identifies a sentiment in a multimedia (audio, video, text) document. The fields of application are very diverse: commercial products, political law, event, etc.

The large amount of rich textual information available on the internet thanks to the numerous websites (social networks, e-commerce site, news sites, etc.) is a tremendous aid in designing a sentiment analysis system.

We will focus on textual document sentiment analysis. Even if the document that contains the opinions is not textual, an ASR system allows the opinion to be obtained in textual format. Here we present a sentiment analysis based on a Naive Bayes classifier.

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Computer Vision Image Processing Publications Video Analysis

Video Quality Assessment (VQA)

The growing ubiquity of audiovisual content on the Internet has increased the importance of online advertising. With technological improvements, the quality of digital video rendering keeps improving as well, which in turn makes the users’ requirements stricter and stricter. So, the video quality is an important element to consider in online video advertising. Indeed, it goes without saying that a high quality video is more likely to interest users than a low quality video. Therefore it is crucial to be able to quantify the video’s quality. Nevertheless, the multiplicity of video formats and the various types of communication networks (wireless, fiber, xDSL networks…) make video quality assessment complex. Since the “end receiver” of video is human, the most accurate VQA is subjective (by humans). However, subjective assessment is time-consuming, and it depends on the person who evaluates it (mood, culture…). Thus, researchers have considered building objective assessment methods to model subjective methods. The advantage of objective VQA is that they can operate in real time. We will focus here on objective assessment processes for quality of video signals.

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Machine Learning Publications

Behavioral Targeting

Online advertising is becoming more and more competitive. Hence, to maximize their revenue by optimizing their KPI (Key Performance Indicators) such as the CTR (Click-Through-Rate), advertisers use various targeting techniques. On the one hand, targeting can be based on the contextual information of the current webpage page visited by the users, and on the other hand it can be performed by profiling the users’ historical set of queries. The latter technique is known as Behavioral Targeting (BT). This approach is used to predict whether a user would be more or less sensitive to advertising. We present here a BT system based on logistic regression. However we shall begin this paper by presenting some technical concepts used in digital advertising.

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Information Retrieval Machine Learning Publications

Relations Extraction in textual information

These days we find a large amount of textual data on the web, which is partly encouraged by the proliferation of social networks and other web pages. This textual information is a “goldmine”, because many applications can be drawn from the quantity of knowledge they provide. For example, it is possible to analyze the sentiment and/or opinion of customers. This kind of information can be used to improve the accuracy of customer targeting. One can also predict or prevent Customer Churn more accurately. Another kind of application is Semantic Web (SW, Web 3.0). The core idea behind the SW is to link information according to relations. Hence, computers will be able to “understand the information by themselves”. In the present paper, first we present an overview of the architecture of a generic Information Extraction (IE) system. This is followed by a short description of each component of this architecture, and we end by presenting the principle of a Relations Extraction system.

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Information Retrieval Publications Speech Processing Video Analysis

UBM-GMM based Text-Independent Speaker Recognition

Speaker recognition systems are often used in the field of security, and a common example of their use is client voice authentication for some secured applications. Another application of speaker recognition is segmentation into homogenous parts of speech where each segment corresponds to one speaker’s speech. This process can also be very useful for improving the accuracy of speech recognition systems. Speech can also be used in the field of audio indexing. Recognizing the identity of speakers in a multi-speaker audio stream can provide some usable knowledge about its content. Two types of speaker recognition system exist: the text-dependent and text-independent systems. The first are speaker recognition systems where the verification texts and those saved during the enrollment phase are the same. As in online video indexing, the sentences are a priori unknown; we will focus here on text-independent systems. This paper is organized as follows: first we present the GMM classifier, and then the principle of LLR (LikeLihood Ratio) detection used to decide on the score given by a tested utterance.

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Audio Analysis Information Retrieval Machine Learning Publications Speech Processing

Gaussian Mixture Model Supervectors

Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) supervectors (GSV) are generally used in speaker recognition tasks. However, they can be used for the classification of audio events, especially when the training dataset is very limited. This is the case for the recognition of some types of sound, such as “gunshots”, where the variation from one sample to another is small (so the number of various stimuli of these types can be limited). Thus, in a supervised classification, rather than directly using the features vectors as the classifier input, they are transformed into GSV beforehand. This transformation aims at compensating the limitation of the stimuli variability in the training database. In the following, we will present an introduction to Gaussian Mixture Models, the core idea of GSV, and then we will present the GSV concept.

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